आपदा प्रतिक्रिया - त्वरित प्रतिक्रिया टीम
(Chapter – 6)
DISASTER RESPONSE – INSTANT ACTION TEAM
INSTANT ACTION TEAM (IAT):
1.Instant Action Team comprises :
(i)The Guard, Crew, TS, TTEs, AC coach attendant, RPF and other railway staff on duty on the accident involved train.
(ii)GRP staff travelling on the train on duty.
(iii) Railway staff travelling by the accident involved train either on duty or on leave as passengers.
(iv)Doctors travelling by the train.
(v)Passengers travelling on the train who volunteer for rescue and relief work.
(vi)Railway staff working at site or available near the site of the accident.
(vii)Non-Railway personnel available at or near the accident site.
2.Pre – accident checklist of preparation for Members of Instant Action Team
(i)Generally, about 15” time elapses before information regarding occurrence of an accident reaches the Divisional Control Office. In case information can be conveyed immediately this time can be saved. This 15” time is of vital importance since it constitutes 25% of the ‘Golden Hour’.
(ii)In case they have a Mobile, ensure that telephone numbers of all relevant officials such as those of divisional control offices etc. have been permanently fed into the Mobile for immediate use in an emergency.
(iii)These important telephone numbers should cover all those sections where they are required to work their train either within their own division or even those of adjoining divisions.
(iv)DM Telephone Directory containing all such telephone numbers that are likely to be required in an emergency is available in control office. It has also been distributed to all concerned BOs.
(v)Whenever they are travelling at night they should keep a torch handy and secure it by some means. The torch will be of no use in an emergency if it cannot be taken out from inside the suitcase at that point of time; or if the torch cannot be located since it has fallen off due to severe jerk.
3.Duties of Guard, Pilot and other Commercial Staff :
Detail duty list of Guard and Driver are laid down in the Accident Manual of Zonal Railways. Some of the more important ones are enumerated below :
(i) Note the time of the accident and the location.
(ii) Switch on the Amber Light, if provided, in Flashing Tail Lamp, in the rear of brake van.
(iii) Inform Driver through walkie – talkie set.
(iv) Inform Station Master on walkie – talkie set, if possible.
(v) Protect adjacent line/lines if required and the line on which the accident has taken place as per G&SR 6.03.
(vi) Secure the train and prevent escaping of vehicles.
(vii) Make a quick survey of magnitude of accident and roughly assess casualty, damage and assistance equired.
(viii) Send information through quickest means to Control Office and SMs on either side of the block section. For this purpose,
(a) Walkie – talkie communication provided with stations should immediately be used.
(b) Otherwise field telephone should be used.
(c) If a train comes on the other line which is not blocked the same should be stopped and
information sent through the driver.
(d) Assistant driver or Assistant guard may be sent to the next station to convey information of the accident.
(e) If all of the above fail, one of the railway staff on duty on the train should be sent on foot to the nearest station.
(ix) Utilize Emergency Train Lighting box to facilitate medical aid.
(x) Save lives and render First Aid.
(xi) Call for Doctors and seek their assistance.
(xii) Seek assistance of railway staff and other volunteers from train to rescue injured or entrapped passengers.
(xiii) Direct railway staff and other volunteers from train for attending to injured.
(xiv) Ensure that field telephone is constantly manned by a railway staff.
(xv) Arrange protection of passengers’ belongings and railway property with the help of railway staff, volunteers on train, RPF and GRP.
(xvi) Stop running trains on adjacent line and utilize resources on that train.
(xvii) In electrified section if OHE is affected, take steps to switch off OHE supply.
(xviii) Arrange for transportation of injured to hospital.
(xix) Record evidence or statements, if any, given by passengers.
(xx) Preserve all clues and evidences regarding probable cause of the accident and ensure that these do not get disturbed.
(xxi) Log your activities. Do not leave the spot unless you are relieved by a competent authority.
(a)Loco Pilot -
(i) Note the time of the accident and location.
(ii) Switch ON the ‘Flasher light’ of the locomotive and give 4 short whistles.
(iii) Inform Guard on walkie – talkie set.
(iv) Light the fusee, if required.
(v) Inform Station Master on walkie – talkie set, if possible.
(vi) Protect the adjacent line, if required, and the train in front as per G&SR 6.03.
(vii) Take necessary action to keep the loco safe.
(viii) Take necessary action to prevent Loco/Vehicles/ Wagons from rolling down.
(ix) Make a quick survey of magnitude of accident and roughly assess casualty, damage and assistance required.
(x) Send information through quickest means to Control Office and SMs on either side of the block section. For this purpose,
(a)Walkie – talkie communication provided with stations should immediately be used.
(b)Otherwise field telephone should be used.
(c)If a train comes on the other line which is not blocked the same should be stopped and information sent through the driver.
(d)Assistant driver or Assistant guard may be sent to the next station to convey information of the accident.
(e)If all of the above fail, one of the railway staff on duty on the train should be sent on foot to the nearest station.
(xi)Render all possible assistance to the guard.
(xii)Preserve all clues and evidences regarding probable cause of the accident and ensure that these do not get disturbed.
(xiii)Log your activities. Do not leave the spot unless you are relieved by a competent authority.
(xiv)If necessary detach Loco and take it to inform SM.
(b)Assistant Guard :
(i) Ensure that train is protected as per G&SR 6.03
(ii)Help Crew/Guard in arranging protection of adjacent line, if obstructed.
(iii)Assist Guard in conveying information to SM/Section Controller.
(iv)Help the Guard in rendering First Aid to injured.
(v)Help in shifting injured persons to the nearest hospital.
(vi)Ensure protection of Railway and public property till arrival of RPF/GRP .
(vii)Carry out the work assigned by Guard.
(c) Train Superintendent/Travelling Ticket Examiners :
(i)Preserve reservation charts of each coach containing names of passengers who actually traveled and in which berth no.
(ii)Avail services of Doctors travelling by the train and render Medical Aid.
(iii)Render First Aid to injured.
(iv)Collect particulars of injured passengers and prepare a list showing exact position of injured in coaches, from Train Engine to Brake Van. This should be handed over to railway doctors when ARMV arrives.
(v)Prepare a separate list of dead passengers with address and ticket particulars, if available.
(vi)Take assistance of local people and other volunteers at site.
(vii)Transport injured passengers by road vehicles, if available, to the nearest hospital.
(viii)Inform stranded passengers about alternative transport arrangement.
(ix)Record Evidences or statement given by passengers/others at site.
(d)AC Mechanic/Attendant :
(i)Switch off the power supply to avoid short-circuiting.
(ii)Assist the TS/TTEs in their duties at the accident site.
(e)RPF and GRP staff :
(i)Try and rescue as many passengers as possible from the accident involved coaches.
(ii)Render First Aid to injured.
(iii)Arrange to shift injured persons to the nearest hospital.
(iv)Protect passengers luggage and railway property.
(v)Preserve all clues and evidences regarding probable cause of the accident and
ensure that these do not get disturbed.
4. Railway Staff travelling on the accident affected train :
(i)Whenever a train is involved in a serious accident with casualties/injuries to passengers, all railway staff travelling on the train either on duty or on leave are deemed to be duty with immediate effect.
(ii)Under no circumstance should any of them leave the accident site unless and until divisional officers arrive, take over charge of rescue and relief operations, and permit them to leave.
(iii)Railway staff on train/at site shall volunteer themselves to render assistance and report to TS/TTE/Guard of the Train.
(iv)The senior most officer travelling on the train will assume charge as Officer-in-Charge Site (OC Site).
(v)Normally the senior most officer will be travelling in either the 1AC or in 2AC coach; and most probably in the HOR quota section of the coach. The HOR section of 2AC is invariably in the center of the coach (berth nos. 19 – 22). In any case the TS/TTE would know who are the railway officers travelling in 1AC or 2AC.
(vi) Similarly, other railway staff will be travelling in 3AC coach; and most probably in the HOR quota section of the coach. The HOR section of 3AC is also in the center of the coach (berth nos. 25 – 30).
(vii)Similarly, some Group ‘D’ railway staff may be travelling in Sleeper coach; and probably in the HOR quota section of the coach. The HOR section of a Sleeper coach is located in the center of the coach (berth nos. 33 – 40).
(viii) In the absence of any officer, the TS or senior most TTE/Guard will discharge duties listed out for OC Site.
5. Duties of OC Site – Immediately after the accident :
(i) Note down the time of accident.
(ii) Ensure protection of traffic by Guard and Driver.
(iii) Ensure reporting of accident to nearest Station/Control.
(iv) Roughly assess the extent of damage and likely number of casualties.
(v) Collect railway staff and volunteers from amongst the passengers and form different groups. Each of these groups should be assigned work as detailed at item 6 below.
(vi) Maintain a log of events.
(vii) Till Divisional Officers arrive and take over charge of the situation, continue to discharge duties of OC Site.
(viii)After Divisional Officers arrive, fully brief the DRM before hand over charge to him.
(ix) The on-board OC Site should ensure issue of a detailed message with following information before leaving the site of the accident.
- Time/Date of accident.
-Location Km./between stations.
-Train number and description.
-Nature of accident.
-Approximate number of killed/injured.
-Extent of damage.
-Condition of the adjacent line, if any.
-Whether OHE is involved.
(x) From here onwards, the DRM of the accident involved division takes over charge as OC Site.
6.Formation of Groups comprising members of Instant Action Team :
(i) OC Site shall immediately collect all Railway staff on train/at site and form separate groups.
(ii) Passengers travelling by the same train who volunteer for rescue and relief work should also be drafted into these groups.
(iii) Passengers from accident involved coaches should be directed towards their own coach.
(iv)Passengers from coaches which are not effected can be distributed amongst other accident involved coaches.
(v) In the absence of OC site, TS/TTE shall take steps to form such groups.
(vi)In the absence of TS/TTE the Guard/Assistant Guard shall take steps to form such groups.
(vii)5 or 6 groups should be formed depending on number of coaches involved.
(viii)Ideally, one group should be formed for handling each coach.
(ix)In case sufficient number of officers are present, then one officer should be made in-charge of each group.
(x) Otherwise, Sr. Supervisors travelling by the accident involved train should be nominated as in-charge of each group to co-ordinate its working.
(xi)In case sufficient number of Sr. Supervisors are also not present, one TTE should be nominated as in-charge of each group to co-ordinate its working.
(xii)Each group should rescue injured, entrapped passengers.
7.Duties of members of Instant Action Team – Till arrival of Divisional Officers :
(i)If a person is bleeding and loosing blood, or if he is unconscious, then in that case you have to act quickly. ‘Golden Hour’ should be kept in mind. You may have at the most only one hour’s time on hand.
(ii)In such cases, immediately administer First Aid to the injured passenger and try and stop further loss of blood.
(iii)Persons trained in first aid may do ‘Cardio Pulmonary Resucitation’. This may save several lives.
(iv)If the door is open and is accessible, then uninjured passengers should be helped to come out from the door.
(v)In AC coaches the windows panes should be broken open in order to let in fresh air for the occupants, and thereafter to evacuate them.
(vi)Non – AC coaches have one emergency exit window on each side. The position of this emergency window is 5th from the left when facing the line of windows from inside the coach. They are opposite berth nos. 23 and 57. In case the door is locked and jammed, try and open these windows so that some of the uninjured passengers can come out through the emergency exit.
(vii)Special care should be taken while evacuating the old, infirm and children in order to ensure that they are not separated from their family members.
(viii)Extrication of critically injured should be done under medical supervision as far as possible.
(ix) In case medical supervision is not available, then critically injured passengers should be made to lie down on a bed sheet and thereafter taken out by 4 persons holding the four corners. This will ensure that no further damage takes place. (Bed sheets will be available in AC coaches).
(x)Passengers who are bleeding from open cuts should be tied up with strips of cloth so as to reduce if not stop the bleeding altogether.
(xi)It is better not to take out the luggage from inside the coaches at the first instance, for two reasons. Firstly, passengers both injured and uninjured should get preference in this evacuation process. Secondly, it may be safer for the luggage to be left inside where there are less chances of their being stolen or pilfered.
(xii)After passengers have been evacuated from your coach, cross check with the reservation chart and against the name of each passenger note down as to whether he/she is injured or not.
(xiii)After all passengers have been evacuated, water and eatables can be taken out gradually.
(xiv)Building up confidence of injured passengers by suitable advice is of great importance.
(xv)After helping evacuate all passengers from your coach go over to the unreserved coaches and provide similar help to those passengers also.
(xvi) Railway officials from divisional hdqrts. generally arrive at the site of the accident within 2 to 3 hours, depending on the distance of the accident site from the divisional hdqrts. Wait for them to come and make further arrangements.
(xvii)Grievously injured passengers who are bleeding or those who are unconscious require immediate hospitalization. In case some local people have arrived by that time, their help should be taken in shifting the grievously injured to the nearest hospital.
(xviii)(xviii) In case your train has been involved in an accident but neither has your coach derailed nor are any passengers of your coach injured, then you should go to the unreserved coaches and carry out the duties as listed above.
8.Duties of the Instant Action Team – In case of a fire :
(i)In case of fire pull the Alarm Chain and stop the train immediately.
(ii)Try and put out the fire before it becomes a big blaze by using either water or blankets etc.
(iii)More people expire due to suffocation from smoke rather than due to actual burning.
(iv)Advise passengers to take a cloth, wet it in their drinking water and cover their nostrils.
(v)Instruct passengers to go to the other end of the coach which is away from the fire and if possible cross over to the next coach through the vestibule.
(vi)Insist that passengers should save themselves first and not to bother about their luggage which can be retrieved later on.
(vii)Make sure that no passenger lies down on the floor.
(viii)After train has stopped, passengers should come down from the coach immediately.
(ix)Building up confidence of injured passengers by suitable advice is of great importance.
9. Duties of OC Site - till arrival of divisional officers :
Having formed different groups consisting of available railway staff on the train and volunteers from amongst passengers, the rescue and relief work should be got started in right earnest. This entire exercise would take about 30” time. Once the rescue and relief work by the Instant Action Team has got underway, the OC site should then devote his attention to contacting First Responders.
(a) Locating nearby villages :
(i)There would be some villages nearby, either visible or out of sight.
(ii)In most cases, villagers turn up on their own having heard the sound of the disaster.
(iii)Otherwise, try and see if any light or any other signs from the village are visible.
(iv)In case none of the above is possible, then speak to either the control office or the nearest station and find out the location of nearby villages as also their general direction.
(v)Location of nearby villages as also their general direction will be available in the Divisional DM Plans.
(vi)Having ascertained the general location of nearby villages, send messengers (preferably railway staff) to inform villagers and seek their assistance.
(b)Locating the nearest manned level crossing gate :
(i)The train driver is the best and fastest source of information regarding location of the nearest manned level crossing gate in either direction.
(ii)Send a messenger (preferably a railway staff) to the gate for contacting the gateman.
(iii)In most cases, the gateman will be able to give location of nearby villages.
(iv)The messenger should then try and stop a passing vehicle and go to the nearby village, inform villagers and seek their assistance.
(c)Organizing assistance from local people available in nearby villages
(i) Villagers should be asked to make an announcement from their loud speaker (generally available in the local temple, mosque, gurudwara, church etc.) informing others regarding the accident.
(ii) Everybody should be asked to rush to the accident site with following :
-tractor trolleys (both for transportation as also for general lighting),
-as many cutting implements, hammers, chisels etc. as are available,
(iii)If doctors or para-medical staff are available in the village they should also be sent to the accident site.
(iv)The messenger should stay back and try and organize opening of a big building (preferably a school) for sheltering of injured passengers and/or preservation of dead bodies.